Dental Pulp Stem cells
Till recently, the only popular sources of stem cells were Bone Marrow and Adipose tissues. But now there are stem cell sources that are more convenient and accessible. Stem cells are also present in the Dental Pulp tissues which can be isolated during dental extraction procedures for milk or wisdom teeth. Since it is medical waste, there are no ethical obligations required for extracting these cells for research or clinical purpose. Further, no invasive procedure is required for stem cell isolation from this source. It has been shown that the pulp has a population of highly proliferative cells with properties similar to bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived stem cells. These cells have self-reparative potential that protects the pulp from degradation. They also have an inherent potential for differentiation into osteoblasts and neuronal lineages. Stem cells from the pulp can be preserved for later use in both children and adults.
What is unique about Dental pulp stem cells?
- High growth rate
- High potential to form odontoblasts and neural cells
- Easy accessibility
- No immune reaction
What are some procedures for which dental stem cells are beneficial?
Stem cells have the potential to revolutionize the root canal procedures by regenerating the damaged dental pulp tissue. Traditionally in a root canal procedure, the pulp is removed when the infection spreads. Without pulp, the tooth is essentially dead and there will be no nerves or nutrition reaching it. With stem cells, the pulp can be saved from the procedure to maintain a healthy and viable tooth. This will ensure blood circulation is maintained and there will also be reduced risk of further infections or complications.
Cavities are fairly normal procedures in dentistry where decayed material is drilled out to fill with a cement-like material. The idea behind the dental stem cell application is coaxing them to generate the dentin layer that can fill the cavity instead of synthetic fillings. There are drugs are under clinical trials that can stimulate the stem cells
Tooth loss from pathological conditions or traumatic accidents requires reconstruction for aesthetic and functional purposes. A lot of recent studies have been directed towards generation of biocompatible implants that can replace a missing tooth or provide support in the jaw bone. This involves implantation of dental pulp stem cells on a scaffold that mimics the native tooth environment. This makes procedures such as bone grafting and dental implants
A misaligned jaw due to mandibular or maxillary defects can be reconstructed with the help of stem cells and biocompatible scaffolds. This is useful to improve aesthetic appearance of the entire face. The stem cells release growth factors that enhance the rate of healing and regeneration
At Advancells, we have a history of patients who have undergone correction procedures for dental implants. In one such case, there was a lack of keratinized tissue around the implant. With the help of dental stem cells, thick keratinized tissue was regenerated to a desirable extent.