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Diabetic nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease is a kidney-related disorder affecting individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy distresses the kidneys’ delicate filtering structure i.e., its capability to eliminate waste products and additional fluid from the human body. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the existence of:

  • Pathological amounts of urine albumin emission
  • Diabetic glomerular lesions
  • Loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetics.

Diabetic nephropathy is a common disorder; 1 in 4 women and 1 in 5 men with type 2 diabetes are diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy. It is all the more common in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

Symptoms

In the primary phase, the signs and symptoms are almost negligible. In advanced phases, the signs and symptoms consist of:

  • Deteriorating blood pressure regulation
  • Protein in the urine
  • Swelling of ankles, hands feet or eyes
  • Increased want to urinate
  • Decrease in the requirement for insulin or diabetes medication
  • Confusion or trouble in focusing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent itching
  • Exhaustion

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is characterized by various tests and procedures, such as:

  • Blood tests- This is a basic test required to monitor the ailment and regulate how the kidneys are working.
  • Urine tests- Urine samples deliver data regarding kidney function and whether there are excessive amounts of protein in the urine. Increased levels of the protein- microalbumin can indicate whether or not the kidneys are being affected by this disease.
  • Imaging tests- X-rays and ultrasound are conducted to evaluate the kidney’s structure and size. Along with this, a CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also conducted to understand how well the blood is circulating within the kidneys.
  • Renal function testing- Using renal analysis testing, the kidney’s filtering capacity can be assessed.
  • Kidney biopsy- A kidney biopsy may also be conducted to observe the kidney tissues.

 

How can stem cell therapy help?

The conventional treatment options involve kidney transplants and kidney dialysis, which in turn comes with its own set of complications and side effects. It is high time that other alternative treatment options are explored such as stem cell therapy.

Various research studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells are extremely effective against Diabetic nephropathy. One such study by Sávio-Silva et al., (2020) indicates that Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy possesses significant biological and therapeutic abilities for restricting Diabetic nephropathy progression. There is convincing evidence that MSC isolated from type 1 diabetes individuals uphold their basic characteristics, such as potency, secretion of trophic factors, and modulation of immune cells.

Another research study, on animal models, was conducted by Bai et al., (2019) which states that Mesenchymal stem cell involvement prevented Diabetic nephropathy procession and additionally repressed glomerulosclerosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines and eventually restored kidney homeostasis.

Adding more instances that stem cell therapy offers a great promise in Diabetic nephropathy treatment, a review by Lin et al., (2021) states that in animal models of Diabetic nephropathy, mesenchymal stem cells may improve body weight, glycemic regulation, and pancreatic islet function to secrete insulin and lessen urinary protein, and renal hypertrophy. Mesenchymal stem cells can diminish the expression of inflammatory mediators and improve renal fibrosis.

Diabetic nephropathy research is developing in the direction of brilliant pharmaceutical and metabolic discoveries and Advancells is delighted to be a part of this. For more info on stem cell therapy for kidney disorders visit https://www.advancells.com/kidney-disorder/. You can also contact us at info@advancells.com

 

REFERENCEs

Bai, Y., Wang, J., He, Z., Yang, M., Li, L., & Jiang, H. (2019) Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reverse Diabetic Nephropathy Disease via Lipoxin A4 by Targeting Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)/smad Pathway and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research25, 3069–3076.

Lin, W., Li, HY., Yang, Q., Chen, G., Lin, S., Liao, C. and Zhou, T. (2021) Administration of mesenchymal stem cells in diabetic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Stem Cell Research Therapy, 12(1): 43.

Sávio-Silva, C., Beyerstedt, S., Soinski-Sousa, P.E., Casaro, E.B., Balby-Rocha, M.T.A., Simplício-Filho, A., Alves-Silva, J., Rangel, E.B. (2020)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Studies Using Syngeneic, Autologous, Allogeneic, and Xenogeneic Cells”, Stem Cells International.

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