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Stroke, the leading cause of death and lifetime disability, devastating the lives of millions all around the world currently. Fortunately, for many of us stroke may seem to be bizarre, yet many of these stroke survivors have managed to get back on track quickly; well, we should be thankful for technology for this!

With intense investigations at the bench side, preclinical as well as clinical levels; scientists can crack the endogenous mystery behind stroke occurrence. They are also able to figure out how cell-based therapy is the only current source to promote quick neurological recovery. By deep-diving into the ocean of cellular communication, signaling pathways, and underlying mechanism of disease conditions; the prominent role of exosomes can be vetoed, further raising the possibility of neurorestorative therapy and that these exosomes can be utilized for personalized therapeutic benefits.

The present write-up can be helpful for us to understand current opportunities for exosome-based therapeutic approaches through neuronal amplification, a significant reduction in inflammation, and neurorestorative as a viable treatment strategy.

Key Takeaways

  • Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes are packed machinery that is involved in many aspects of normal brain physiology to facilitate communication between the brain and its periphery.
  • Based on the data obtained from preclinical and clinical studies, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells are beneficial in the targeted delivery of stem cells to promote beneficial effects post stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • Several animal studies have proven how effective MSC-derived exosomes are in potentially improving neurological outcomes through mitigation of inflammatory responses.
  • Of the many cargoes loaded in exosomes secreted by mesenchymal stem cells, the microRNA/miRNA are clinically relevant in mediating therapeutic benefits.
  • The exosomes can cross the blood-brain barrier even to promote the targeted delivery of stem cells.

What are Exosomes and Its Role in Mitigating Stroke Symptoms?

Exosomes are pre-loaded microvesicles released during cellular communication, here concerning stem cells. These exosomes are absorbed by surrounding damaging cells to hijack their machinery and incorporate the same in cellular synthesis to modify the production of healing proteins. With this theoretical background, many researchers studied the effect of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes to treat fatal indications like stroke. The emerging literature is suggesting the presence of exosomes in all cells present in human brains. These exosomes are of various sizes, ranging from 30 nm to 100 nm in diameter; and are well known to play a vital role in cellular communication.

Recent preclinical studies have confirmed that administration of exosomes, obtained from umbilical cord-derived stem cells improved survival, reduced brain damage, prevented cellular death, and facilitated early stroke recovery in rats post neurological ischemic stroke. It was also reported from the preclinical analysis that the stroke-induced rats prevented the inflammation associated with post-ischemic induction.

Mechanism and Benefits of Exosome Mediated Stroke Treatment

The characteristics of exosomes in faster recovery from brain diseases are reported by several studies conducted to date.

  • Studies have reported a beneficial effect of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome therapy in protecting ischemic brain injury by improving the microenvironment and supporting the growth of resident cells.
  • Exosomes help improve vascular remolding and regeneration
  • Exosomes help decrease inflammation, and infarct volume as well as oedema by reducing the expression of ROS, and TNF-alpha, the well-known inflammatory markers.
  • The white blood cells are observed to be the key mediators of inflammation post-injury; however, studies have confirmed the potential role of exosomes in facilitating apoptosis of these particular sets of white blood cells, thereby further reducing inflammation.

Regulatory Obligations for Exosome Therapy

Since exosomes are the cell-free option, they do not have a major role in regulatory obligations; unless have been manipulated to too much extent, like bioengineered exosomes. They are the better option due to some of their native, inherent characteristics like negligible toxicity, stability while in circulation, strong protection from degradation during cargo, and excellent transport efficiency to distant body cells even by passing blood-brain barriers.

Conclusion

Thus, exosomes by all means are at the forefront of clinical success in many areas tapped recently. In the past few years, the therapeutic applications of exosomes have been effectively studied as being the best fit to treat neurological disorders. Still lot of in-depth studies are on their way to completion to tackle certain challenges like prolonged survival of exosomes in the body, purity during isolation, stability as well as highly scalable production.

If you are looking for stem cell therapy for stroke, email us at info@advancells.com for a free consultation on stem cells and exosomes for stroke treatment. You can also call us at +91-9654321400 for further information.