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Stem Cell Therapy FAQ / Glossary

General Information

With the introduction of cryopreservation technology, the concept of storing and banking of stem cells came into existence. The cryopreservation technique includes the freezing, storing, and thawing of cells to have viable number of cells for therapeutic use or research when required. For a cryopreservation technique to be successful, there are many factors which need to be taken care of. Following are the critical factors associated with cryopreservation which can affect cells in a negative manner.

-Use of cryoprotectants: The cryoprotectant agents are added to prevent damage to prevent osmotic stress or ice crystal formation during freezing; however a small trace of cryoprotrectant, if present during transplantation, can be detrimental to patient.

-Low temperature storage: The low storage temperature can cause chilling injuries affecting cell number and viability.

-Proper electric power back up: During cryopreservation, cells need to be maintained continuously at low temperature. Fluctuation in storage temperature can affect cell viability.

Because of these limiting factors associated with cryopreservation, it is better to have freshly isolated stem cells for therapeutic use. Stem cells can be easily harvested for clinical and research applications from bone marrow, peripheral blood, adipose tissue, cord tissue, dental pulp etc. These sites are easily accessible, economical to harvest and contain large numbers of stem cells. However it may be time consuming process to use fresh stem cells, but it is good to use these cells for therapeutic purpose.

Stem cell therapy in medicine is arising as a promising therapeutic option for various incurable diseases. The unique abilities of stem cells to divide into multiple stem cells and differentiate into specialized cells make them apt for the treatment of many diseases. This is the basis of cellular therapy and regenerative medicine, the latest great advancement in healthcare sector. Stem cell based therapies are mainly of two types based on the source of stem cells-

Autologous stem cell therapy: where stem cells are harvested from a patient and then returned back to the same patient

Allergenic stem cell therapy: where stem cells are isolated form donor and given to patient other than donor.

There are many diseases conditions where both autologous and allogenic therapies can be considered equally. Autologous therapies are better choice as they are “custom” products for each patient and no immune rejection problem is associated. However there are some conditions like genetic disorders, allogenic therapy should be preferred. The genetic disorders occur due to defect in genes of cells; that cannot be treated by cells of same patient. These genetic diseases can be treated by the transplantation of normal stem cells where these cells replace the defected cells. For allogenic mesenchymal stem cells therapy, stem cells can be isolated from different adult sources such as adipose tissue, cord tissue etc. The tissue of baby’s umbilical cord is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A significant amount of research is underway to better understand therapeutic role of mesenchymal stem cells in degenerative disorders.

We trust in collaborative Practice Models. In this model, Disease management generally means using a multidisciplinary team of providers, including Primary physicians, Stem cell Experts (physicians and scientists), nurses, nutritionists, physical therapists, and psychologists, to cultivate and help people manage our patient’s conditions.

The treatment is performed at multi-specialty hospitals by a team of expert orthopedic surgeons, neurologists, anesthetists, cardiologists, pediatricians and radiologists. We provide medical supervision of disorder-specific experts, a team of professional nurses for pre and post-surgery care, patient advisors and translators to guarantee a comfortable stay and optimal treatment.

The cost of treatment depends on the method of implantation adopted for the respective patient. Each case is treated as a stand alone case and a unique protocol is prepared or each patient based on their individual needs an requirements. As a result there is no possibility of a standard price list and we will have to price each case depending on your condition.

No. The charges do not include expenses such as travel, food and/or accommodation.

Generally, duration of stay in India lasts for 5 - 6 days. The trip should be completed within 8 to 10 days including travel. However, in case of surgical procedures, the period of stay may have to be extended and will be decided on basis of the particular case.

Though a few stem cell implantation procedures as well as bone marrow collection can be performed without hospitalization, in order to guarantee the provision of the highest standard of medical care, hospitalization for at least one night is advised. Longer periods of hospitalization may be necessary for surgical procedures, heart disorder treatments & required specialized care. Specialized care involves additional costs.

No. we provide interpreters and translators for many languages including English.

The biological function of stem cells concerns repairing and regeneration of damaged cells. Stem cell therapy uses this function to its advantage by administering the stem cells systematically directly into the damaged tissue in adequate concentrations to augment self-healing. The process fundamental to this mechanism is unknown to some extent, but assumedly stem cells are designed to discharge certain substances which support the diseased tissue to recuperate. It is also plausible that single somatic cells like single neurocytes present in spinal cord or the endothelium cells present in vessels can be replaced by adult stem cells when damaged. Most scientists have agreed on the fact that the potential of research on stem cell is life-saving and could certainly revolutionize the future of the study and medical treatment of disorders, degenerative diseases and fatal injuries.

Advancells Stem cell therapy involves autologous stem cells i.e. stem cells of an individual’s own body. So, there are no concerns on moral and ethical grounds.

It is reached by routine coverage and feedback between patients, doctors, and other providers on the care team, which assure that patients are effectively managing their conditions and getting the care they require. To boot, we also assess the health plans on the basis of feedback from patients and providers.

Bone Marrow Collection (BMC)

Bone marrow is accumulated from one’s hip bone by mini-puncturing with the use of a fine needle after applying local anesthesia.

For children and patients suffering from Alzheimer and Cerebral Palsy, bone marrow is extracted after using general anesthesia.

Advancells generally collect about 150-200 ml of bone marrow.

Slight discomfort during procedure and small bruises around points of needle insertion are natural, but severe pain has neither been observed in any case nor is it expected.

It takes about 15-45 minutes in collecting bone marrow.

Bone marrow is actually a specific tissue present inside bones. Its main function is production of stem cells, whose task is to produce all the various types of blood cells, especially erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. Each stem cell divides infinitely resulting in the formation of millions of new stem cells. The bone marrow present in the hips, chest, skull, legs and upper arms contain most of the stem cells. When the stem cells transform into function-specific cells, they get released in the blood stream. We can also find a smaller count of unsegregated stem cells in the blood stream.

It is not possible to actually state the number of stem cells that a patient receives during treatment but the number is large enough to be effective.

We then advise another bone marrow collection which might be liable to additional cost.

The various methods to implant stem cell depend on the patient’s condition. There are different ways to administer stem cells:

  • Intravenous administration
  • Administration through catheter with the help angiography
  • Direct channelization to target point like a knee joint
  • Injections utilizing catheter or lumbar puncture targeting the central nervous system
  • Surgical operation for patients having stroke or SCI (Brain-surgery and spinal surgery)
  • Injection through the retrobulbar space

Generally, autologous stem cell therapy has zero long-term side-effects. However, no surgery is absolutely risk-free. In this therapy, there are risks of anesthetic side-effects, infection, short-term discomfort, uncontrolled bleeding and problems of wound healing. The possible side-effects are disease-oriented and individual-specific. It is advisable to discuss all aspects with the transplant specialist assigned to your case.

The fact that adult stem cells not only augment regeneration of damaged or diseased cells and tissue, but also augment tumor cells formation, although in extremely small quantities, suggests that the possibility of tumors cannot be entirely excluded. There is greater risk in case of embryonic stem cells injected without differentiation as well as with artificially modified cells. But in case of uncultured adult stem cells the risk is very low. Results of animal testing showed zero cancer-causing potential in case of uncultured, autologous, adult stem cells and Advancells uses this type of stem cells exclusively.

Registration and more

Step 1: We advise you to fill your information in Advancells’ Treatment Inquiry Form following which we will send you an email containing more information. You will also receive a secure link to the online Medical Information Form of Advancells.

Step 2: Shortly after that, you will be contacted via email and/or telephone by a patient representative of ours.

Generally, the bone marrow of a patient is collected on Mondays, Tuesdays or Wednesdays. The procedure of implantation is then performed on Wednesdays, Thursdays or Fridays of the same respective week. Most patients are allowed to return home one day following implantation. Surgical treatment cases require a longer stay lasting for a few more days.

Yes. Advancells does offer free hotel and flight booking assistance via a global travel agency but strictly on the patient’s request. The agency may charge additional fees for flight booking in some cases.

Advancells offers a pick-up and drop facility from the New Delhi Airport to any hotel within the region and an additional ambulance service at reasonable charges.

We prefer wire transfer before 14 days of your scheduled bone marrow collection. Additional charges, if applicable, are accepted in cash and also by credit card and are to be settled before discharge of the patient.

It is necessary to deposit a portion of the treatment expenditure for scheduling the treatment.


To understand the scientific terms involved, go through the glossary.

The most frequently used scientific terms are as follows:

Adult stem cells are unspecialized cells inclusive of various kinds of multipotent as well as unipotent cells that are present in specialized tissues of the adult organism. The stem cells renew themselves and divide finitely into all differentiated cell varieties present in their mother-tissue. Bone marrow and blood in umbilical cord of newborns also contain adult stem cells.

These are multipotent cells found in the bone marrow. The hematopoietic stem cells as well as mesenchymal stem cells are types of bone marrow stem cells.

CD34 is a unique molecular structure found on the outer layer of the hematopoietic stem cells acting as markers for the HSCs. The hematopoietic precursors are easily distinguished from different precursors using these markers. "Cluster of differentiation" is abbreviated as CD.

Refer to Regenerative medicine below

Clones are generated identical copies of any organism, molecule or even a cell

The blood vessels in the umbilical cord of a newborn contain cord blood stem cells for a short period post-delivery. These cells originate in the liver during foetal life and move to the bone marrow of a newborn where blood is produced. Cord blood stem cells and the bone marrow stem cells are comparable in their resemblance as well as effectiveness in treating leukemia and other blood diseases.

"Current Good manufacturing practice” is an essential part of quality management. It ensures constant production and proper checking in accordance with high quality standard that underlies the license documents and specification of products. Advanced manufacturing practices emphasize on quality control. Any company gets its manufacturing license when each and every stage of production and procedure of control is carried out according to the standard rules of manufacturing practice.

It is the process following which an unspecialized embryonic cell develops the characteristics of specialized cells like those in the liver, heart, muscles or brain.

It is the product of fertilization of an egg. The term is used for a fertilized egg from fertilization (zygote) till completion of foetal formation, which in case of human lasts for around eight weeks.

These are the precursors of mature cells that form blood.

This term defines the processes that are performed in a laboratory using equipment like a dish, test tubes and requires an artificial environment.

These are also known as stromal cells of bone marrow. These are a mixed group non-hematopoietic cells with the capability to grow and differentiate into various other cell types.

Stem cells with the ability to develop into a few cell types only. Most of the adult stem cells have multipotency. Please see pluripotent as well as totipotent.

The notable ability common in stem cells allowing them to transform from one cell type to another giving rise to a completely different type of tissue is referred to as plasticity.

Pluripotency is the feature of an embryonic stem cell by virtue of which it can transform into many other cell types.

A treatment involving stem cells where these cells are made to transform and develop into the other specific cell type necessary for repairing damaged or destructed cell populations.

These cells have the ability to infinitely divide in culture and play the fundamental role in formation of other specialized as well as unspecialized cell types.

Tissue Engineering implies the production of tissue constructions from endogenous somatic cells. Stem cells or other differentiated somatic cells are utilized for the construction. Through this phenomenon, tissues such as skin or cartilage are grown outside the body and later transplanted to the patient.

Totipotency allows cells to form an entire organism. Only a zygote and the first four cells formed by its division are totipotent.

Unipotency is the ability common in all differentiated cells which allows them to form only cells of their own type.