Liver fibrosis is a condition of scar tissue formation in response to liver damage, resulting from sustained liver injury due to drugs, alcohol, hepatitis B and C infection, metabolic diseases, or autoimmune factors. When scar tissues replace the healthy liver tissue, liver cirrhosis occurs and regenerative nodules with surrounding fibrous bands develop. Cirrhosis is a term for denoting the near- end of progressive liver diseases, resulting in chronic liver failure. Unfortunately, the majority of liver cirrhosis treatment cases are usually irreversible, when diagnosed, and orthotopic liver transplantation has been the only known solution for liver cirrhosis treatment. While liver transplantation has a curative potential, high cost, lack of donors, and immunosuppression complications make this option limited. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative liver cirrhosis treatments.

Hepatocyte transplantation has been clinically proposed as an alternative approach to liver transplantation, but its applicative potential remains limited due to the availability of organs, weak culture viability, and cryo-related damage vulnerability.

Instead of hepatocytes, stem cell therapy for liver cirrhosis has shown therapeutic potential for improvement of liver function, according to experimental and human studies. Although stem cell treatment for liver cirrhosis is a recent medical approach, the repair is considered to be a two-step process: Improvement of the liver microenvironment through paracrine effects and regeneration/rejuvenation of the functional hepatocytes.

According to a review by Kyeong-Ah Kwak et al. 2018, there have been several clinical trials on regenerative therapy for liver cirrhosis (Full Table https://bit.ly/38PVVIQ) with the most studied stem cell therapy candidates being mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

In particular, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) have been prevalently utilized. In clinical studies, autologous injections of BM-MSCs reported significant improvement of liver function with an emphasis on safety and short-term efficacy, showing improved Child-Pugh and MELD scores. MSCs derived from the umbilical cord were also found to be well tolerated with significant improvement and survival rates in liver-damage patients. Nevertheless, not all studies have shown positive improvements as some reported no beneficial effects. For more information, refer to published reports at https://bit.ly/3rXNFhL

With advances in biomedical science, more strategies are currently been devised to enhance the effects of stem cell therapy in the case of liver cirrhosis treatment. MSCs encapsulation in microspheres has been proposed to evade unwanted differentiation and liver-specific receptors have been suggested for enhancing stem cell homing for treatment. Moreover, gene editing techniques and induced pluripotent stem cell technologies are quickly gaining the upper hand in order to make stem cell therapy efficacy more prominent.

Many stem cell centers for liver cirrhosis treatment are coming up with the advent of new technologies and regenerative therapy for liver cirrhosis is gaining global medical awareness for avoiding liver transplantation issues. For more information on liver cirrhosis treatment and free medical consultation, contact info@advancells.com with your inquiries.