Tissue Reconstruction Through Biodegradable Scaffolds
Through the advanced development in the field of Tissue Engineering, the regeneration of damaged tissue is possible by allowing rapid cellular integration into highly porous biocompatible material; acting as the most suitable microenvironment, through guided tissue regeneration.
These scaffolds essentially act as templates for tissue regeneration through stem cells integration. The scaffolds made up of three dimensional porous structures are typically implanted with stem cells and shots of growth factors, through platelet rich plasma. Thus, regeneration of tissue is allowed systematically; through combination of stem cells, signaling pathways and biodegradable material, as our tissue engineering triad.
Different Types of Scaffolds that can be used in tissue reconstruction
Autografts or Autogenous Bone Grafts are made up from patientā€™s own bone, obtained from some other part of the body. Typically, an autograft is being harvested from the chin, jaw, lower leg bone, hip and the skull. These grafts are advantageous, as it contains living cellular elements that enhance bone growth. However, one of the major drawbacks of autografts is that it requires second procedure for bone harvestment; which is not quite convincing.
Allogenic Bone, or allografts is basically a dead bone harvested from a cadaver. This bone graft is further processed to withdraw water. This, can act as a good scaffold for cultural development of multipotent stem cells.
Xenogenic bone grafts is derived from living bone of other species, such as cow, pig, etc. This type of bone is processed at a very high temperature to avoid the potential immune rejection as well as the issue of contamination. Same as like allogenic grafts, xenogenic grafts also can be utilized for providing functional as well as structural support.