Female fertility disorders can be caused by low egg production, abnormal hormonal levels, cyst in ovaries, endometrial thinning, and fallopian tube blockage. Illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices, and other factors may contribute to female fertility disorders. For female infertility diagnosis, doctors generally check the female hormone system and ovarian reserve, female pelvis, vagina, and cervix.
Major Disorders of Female Infertility Diagnosis:
• Asherman’s syndrome (intrauterine adhesions) is an acquired condition, characterized by fibrous scarring inside the uterine cavity. These adhesions can result in the obstruction of intrauterine cavities and cervical canal. Some of the commonly noted symptoms of Asherman’s syndrome are reduced menstrual flow, pelvic pain, and infertility. In infertile female populations, the prevalence of Asherman’s syndrome varies from 2.8% to 46%.
• The preparation of the endometrium tissue for receiving the embryo is associated with a period of hyperproliferation and angiogenesis in the uterus. The endometrial thickness expands by 5–7 mm in each menstrual cycle and a great amount of tissue remodeling, growth factor secretion, and endothelial sprouting occur in a tightly regulated manner. Endometrial thinning in the uterus is considered a critical factor in embryo implantation failure and pregnancy rates have been reported to decrease in case of inadequate endometrial thickness. For endometrial thinning, an incidence of 5% has been reported in women <40 years and 25% for >40 years.
• Poor ovarian reserve condition in females is heavily influenced by the lack of both quality and quantity of oocytes. This is fueled by ovarian aging, which results in ovarian fibrosis and complete
ovarian failure in severe cases, leading to the loss of fecundity. In general, the incidence of poor ovarian reserve response ranges from 10 to 20%.
Although there is no specific medication for female infertility to date, the treatment regime is multimodal and often involves mechanical transduction, prescribed drugs, and support therapies. With recent scientific advances and research in stem cell therapeutics, disorders caused by female infertility diagnosis may have new hope in the form of stem cell therapy.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Female Infertility
In recent years, significant progress has been made by researchers to use stem cells for ovarian regeneration and oocyte generation. Mesenchymal stem cells have five major types of function to help in reversing or improving female infertility diagnosis-related disorders. The first type involves the replacement and repair of dead and damaged cells owing to the differentiation of the stem cells into specific cell lineages upon self-homing. The second type involves the activation of suppressed cells that stop normal cell cycles after division to enter functional dormancy.
The third type involves paracrine secretion of enzymes, proteins, and cytokines for promoting cell proliferation, apoptosis inhibition, tissue progenitor cell differentiation to repair and rejuvenate the damaged tissues. The fourth type involves immunomodulatory function whereas the fifth type involves promoting the recovery of intercellular signaling. Mesenchymal stem cells to treat female infertility have shown successful results by improving hormonal levels, inducing ovarian follicle formation, and reversing induced premature ovarian failure, in research scenarios. These cells have also been reported in treating endometrial thinning, with more successful outcomes in repairing the endometrial basement.