Numerous significant advancements in the treatment of diabetes and its related complications have greatly improved the lives of patients over the last few decades. Despite this improvement, several concerns with medicinal therapy remain uncertain, and thus a remedy remains unknown. Over 400 million adults worldwide are estimated to have diabetes, and according to a study, it is expected that between 2010 and 2030, this figure would rise to over 500 million. There has also been substantial growth in the number of patients with cardiovascular complications and obesity as a result of this worrying surge.
Adipose tissue is at the crux of the obesity epidemic because it regulates energy balance and lipid homeostasis. New adipogenesis originating from ASCs may produce healthy adipose tissue expansion, according to recent findings. Focusing on the role of ASCs in the progression of obesity and its problems is therefore essential for finding new therapeutic ways to prevent or treat obesity and its comorbidities.
Types of Adipose Tissues
Adipocytes (fat cells) are of three types: white, brown, and beige, and they all play critical roles in energy metabolism.
- White adipose tissue: White adipocytes comprise a single large lipid droplet (LD), and its principal role is to store excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG).
- Brown adipose tissue: Brown adipocytes contain multiple lipid droplets and mitochondria and they facilitate heat generation from the stored energy.
- Beige adipose tissue: They stimulate thermogenesis, which increases energy expenditure.
Adipose-derived Stem Cells in Adipogenesis
Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells (ASCs) are multipotent cells that can develop into a range of mesodermal lineage cells, including adipogenesis which is the formation of adipocytes (fat cells), as well as transdifferentiate into specialised endodermal and ectodermal lineages. Different types of adipocytes are produced by ASCs. Brown and beige adipocytes are specialised for energy expenditure, whereas white adipocytes store energy.
Transdifferentiation of beige and white adipocytes, as well as brown and white adipocytes, has been reported. Dedifferentiation of adult white adipocytes into multipotent ASCs is also possible. The roles of ASCs are disrupted in obese people, resulting in the production of further white fat and the whitening of thermogenic brown and beige fat which ultimately leads to various metabolic and autoimmune diseases like type 2 diabetes.
Beige ASCs in Anti-Obesity Therapy
Beige ASCs have been the focus of extensive focus as a cellular target for anti-obesity therapy because:
- They emerge to be more appropriate to adult humans
- Beige energy-burning cells could be primarily recruited to convert glucose and fatty acids into heat, whereas brown adipocytes are restricted to specific deposits and confined to babies
- Various methods that have no impact on brown adipocytes could be used to produce beige adipocytes from white adipocytes.
- Cold-exposed individuals produce beige adipocytes, which have metabolic benefits such as lower blood glucose and greater energy expenditure.
Therapeutic Applications of ASCs in Diabetes
ASCs’ immunomodulatory properties have been shown to be useful in the treatment of autoimmune illnesses such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes type 1 & type 2. ASCs have been demonstrated to develop into insulin-producing cells, lower blood glucose levels, and increase glucose sensitivity by inhibiting pancreatic islet dysfunction and up-regulating insulin proteins.
To summarise, stem cells are a feasible contemporary treatment option for obesity-induced diabetes, and further research will hopefully unravel the mechanisms behind the link between adipogenesis, obesity and diabetes, contributing to innovative Stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes patients.