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Vision is, undoubtedly, our most crucial sense; we count on it to successfully navigate our environment. Blindness has an enormous influence on a person’s life, but many of the conditions that cause it are difficult or impossible to treat right now. The causes of vision loss include glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and some other causes like injury or infections. Regenerative eye therapies could help people with glaucoma, macular degeneration, and damaged corneas save their eyesight. Researchers are now using stem cell technology to investigate potential new approaches to treating vision loss.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a gradually degenerating eye disorder that may lead to permanent vision loss in aged people. This issue starts when the central portion of the retina (macula) wears down and as a result, affects the light-sensitive nerves at the back of the eyes. The juvenile form of macular degeneration is called Stargardt disease and the elder version of this disorder is called AMD.

Wet And Dry Age-Related MD

There are two main types of age-related macular degeneration: Wet and Dry. People suffering from dry macular degeneration may have yellow deposits in their macula, which might cumulatively dim or distort the vision. As the condition worsens, the macular light-sensitive cells get thinner and eventually die, leading to blind spots in the center of vision. As for the wet form, blood vessels grow underneath the macula and these blood vessels leak fluids into the retina, thus distorting the vision. These blood vessels and bleeding eventually form scars, which lead to permanent central vision loss. Most people with macular degeneration have the dry form and about 10% of people with macular degeneration harbor the wet form.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the predominant factor in vision loss and nearly 100,000 individuals over the age of 50 have AMD. There are two major types of this condition, which can impact the macula in the back of the eye. This area is in control of both central and comprehensive coloured vision.

Dry AMD is the most prevalent and mild form seen in people. On the other hand, wet AMD is less common, estimated to account for only about 10% of AMD patients. In such cases, fresh and leaking blood vessels form behind the retina and harm the macula, resulting in a sudden loss of vision.

Symptoms Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

  • Blurry or less clear central vision. 
  • Dark faded areas in the center of your vision.
  • Worse or different color perception.

Causes Of Age-Related MD

  • Age is the leading cause of severe vision loss in adults over 60.
  • Macular degeneration may be genetic in nature.
  • Smoking habits, hypertension, obesity, light eye color might be associated with risks. 
  • Early eye injuries might be a risk factor for macular degeneration in older age.

Treatments For Age-Related Macular Degeneration

There is no substantial cure for Macular Degeneration and available treatments are the best option for slowing down the rate of degeneration and prevent from losing too much vision. The treatment options might include:

  • Anti-Angiogenesis Drugs- These medications block the formation of blood vessels and leak that cause wet macular degeneration. 
  • Laser Therapy- High-energy laser can destroy the abnormal formation of blood vessels growing in your eye.
  • Photodynamic Laser Therapy- Medical personnel injects a light-sensitive drug to be absorbed by the abnormal blood vessels and then, specific laser target, and damage those blood vessels.
  • Vision Aids- Special lenses or electronic systems can help to create larger images of nearby things that may help people make the most of their remaining vision.

With recent medical advancements in the field of age-related macular degeneration, regenerative therapies like stem cell therapy have come into the limelight as a potential cure as stem cell treatment of macular degeneration using mesenchymal stem cells leads to the repair of the macula tissue and also prevent the leak of the blood vessels in case of wet macular degeneration. This ability of Stem Cells to repair and regenerate tissues makes them the potential candidate for therapy.

For any detailed query regarding macular degeneration contact [email protected] for free medical consultation.

Age-Related Macular DegenerationAMD CausesAMD SymptomsMacular Degeneration