Dyslexia is a learning impairment characterised by trouble reading as a result of the difficulty in speech sounds and understanding how they link to words and letters (decoding). It is often known as reading difficulty, affects parts of the brain that process language.
While a youngster may struggle with comprehension, spelling, and writing, dyslexia does not imply intellectual disability. Instead, an individual with dyslexia may have a higher intelligence quotient than the average individual.
Dyslexia is a common disease that affects between 5% and 10% of the population. Experts estimate that up to 17% of the population has reading issues.
Types of Dyslexia
There are 4 different types of dyslexia that are classified on the basis of symptoms of dyslexia:
- Surface Dyslexia: This is sometimes referred to as visual dyslexia. This type of dyslexia is distinguished by trouble recognising complete words, which is most likely caused by vision problems or visual processing impairments in the brain. These people may have difficulty learning and recalling words if they have difficulty recognising them.
- Phonological Dyslexia: People with phonological dyslexia have difficulties matching the sounds of particular letters and syllables to their written forms.
- Double Deficit Dyslexia: A person with double deficit dyslexia has problems with both the phonological process and identifying speed. This category contains the great majority of the poorest readers.
- Rapid Naming Deficit Dyslexia: People with this type of dyslexia have difficulties in naming letters, objects, or colours quickly.
Causes of Dyslexia
Dyslexia is a congenital disorder with a complex aetiology that includes:
- Inheritance of dyslexia-related genes, and this affliction occurs in the family
- Premature birth or underweight at birth
- During pregnancy, exposure to hazardous chemicals such as nicotine, narcotics, and alcohol may have an impact on foetal brain development.
- Because of infections in the mother during pregnancy, the fetus’s brain development may be altered.
- Differences in brain regions associated with reading and comprehension
- Although dyslexia is present at birth, adults who have had a brain injury, a stroke, or dementia may develop dyslexia symptoms.
- Dyslexia may deteriorate with age.
This list, however, is not exhaustive. In many cases, no precise reason can be identified.
Available Treatments for Dyslexia
If your child has dyslexia, a variety of treatments can help them read and write better. These activities also assist children in catching up with their friends at school.
- Reading Programs: Children with dyslexia have difficulty connecting letters to the sounds they produce, as well as matching words to their meanings. They require more assistance in learning to read and write. In this program, reading specialists help your child read faster, write clearly, help with phonics etc.
- Multisensory Instruction: This method teaches children how to learn new abilities by using all of their senses — touch, sight, hearing, smell, and movement. To know how to spell, your child could, for example, trace their finger over sandpaper letters.
- Orton Gillingham: This is a step-by-step method for teaching children to link letters to sounds and distinguish letter sounds in words.
Current therapies and treatment for learning disabilities like dyslexia include medication and rehabilitation, with a focus on symptom management. As a result, there is a need to investigate innovative medicines that function at the cellular level. Stem cell therapy is a rapidly developing field of regenerative medicine that has shown significant promise as a treatment method for a variety of neurodevelopmental and neurological illnesses. It treats the underlying condition at its core, and its advantages are magnified when paired with traditional treatments.